Do Professor Xavier and Magneto Have the Same Base Power?

By Scott Mattison (@FoolsPizza)

Before we dive into this, I must first admit that I am not an avid reader of the X-men comics; however, I have really enjoyed a lot of the X-men movies, specifically X-men: First Class. Throughout the X-men series, Charles Xavier and Eric Leschner have often been depicted as two sides of the same coin, both working to further the cause of mutants. Xavier believing that advancing the mutants’ cause must be done (mostly) through working with humans and finding common ground; whereas Magneto believes that mutants and humans are destined to be enemies that mutant rights can only be ensured through force. I am sure there are many others out that could have a much more thorough discussion regarding the symbolism and underlying messages that are rooted the relationship between these two characters; however, I am here to pose a much more important theory. Magneto and Professor Xavier share the same base ability: the manipulation of magnetic fields.

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Magneto and Charles Xavier discussing their world views. All Marvel characters and the distinctive likeness(es) thereof are Trademarks & Copyright © 1941–2018 Marvel Characters, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

I am not going to waste time arguing that the manipulation of magnetic fields is Magneto’s power, it is literally in his name! Now for the harder one, Charles Xavier.

In the X-men comics Professor Xavier is depicted have the ability to both read the minds of others as well as implant thoughts into the brains of others through what is known as telepathy. Telepathy is the communication of thoughts and ideas between individuals without the use of the traditional senses. Most of you are thinking Charles Xavier is a known telepath, how you could possibly argue that manipulation of magnetic fields is his power? The answer to this question are two fundamental laws of physics, Ampere’s Law and Faraday’s Law of Induction.

Let’s start with Ampere’s Law. Ampere’s Law defines the generation of magnetic fields due to electricity. Ampere’s Law states that magnetic fields may be generated by the motion of an electrical current or by changing electrical fields.

Our thoughts are complex firings of neurons within the brain, transferring electrical potentials from one brain cell to another. One way scientists study the brain is by tracking these electrical potentials through what is known as electroencephalography (EEG). An alternative to EEG is called magnetoencephalography (MEG) and tracks the small magnetic fields generated when neurons are communicating. This is a practical application of Ampere’s Law. From this, we see two possible ways that Charles Xavier could be telepathically reading the minds of others, either through interpretation of the electric fields (similar to a really fancy EEG) or the interpretation of the magnetic fields (a really fancy MEG). We still do not know how he could possibly place thoughts into the minds of others.

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An illustration of the the relationship between electricity and magnetism. The arrows represent the magnetic field generated by the current moving through a wire wound around a center axis. The circles represent the cross section of a wire. Source: Wikipedia

For the answer to this, we go back to physics, our good friend Faraday, and his law of induction. Faraday’s Law of Induction states that any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause a voltage to be induced in the coil. This means that by changing a magnetic field, we can actually cause the generation of electricity. If the firing of neurons is just changes in voltage potentials across the neuron cells, this means that a magnetic field could cause a neuron to fire.

In fact, this has been demonstrated in medical science. The FDA actually places limitations for how fast the magnetic field inside of an MRI machine can change to prevent muscle spasms in patients.Additionally, there are new fields treatments for depression and anxiety being developed that use targeted magnetic fields to stimulate regions of the brain. So far, these approaches have been shown to be highly targeted and extremely safe. (Author’s Note: MRI machines are extremely safe and none of the discussed technologies could in anyway control your mind).

Scientists are still working to map the complex neural interactions that occur in the brain. While research has begun to be able to map out emotional responses and regions of the brain linked to various types of thought, we are still a long way from reading someone’s mind. However, despite current limitations of science, by combining the concepts of Faraday’s Law and Ampere’s Law we can see that Professor Xavier could gain the abilities of telepathy from a very precise control and interpretation of remote magnetic fields. Of course there are alternate interpretations, Xavier could easily be manipulating and reading the electrical fields in the brains of others. Perhaps more concerning is that regardless of whether or not Xavier can control magnetic fields, with a little practice Magneto could definitely gain the abilities of telepathy.

Beer Today, Gone Tomorrow

By N. Ace Pugh (@DrAcePugh)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently published their report on the possible consequences of global climate change.  Left unchecked and without necessary corrective steps the world will not avoid its most dire effects.

I highly recommend reading this report, at the very least looking at the policymaker summary. The outlook is grim. Imagine, if you will, a nigh-apocalyptic scenario: sea levels rise, storms intensify, forest fires become both more common and more deadly, coral reefs die off, and tropical diseases such as malaria become much more common. Do you also want a side of widespread famine, wars over water (but see), uninhabitable Middle East with that order? Sure thing. Humanity always aims to please. Wealthy, temperate countries such as the United States will likely be less affected at first, which is incredibly unfair because the U.S. and other first world nations disproportionately contributed to the problem. Nonetheless, the consequences of climate change will affect everyone, and the U.S. is no exception. We should all be extremely concerned.

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It’s going to be a real scorcher. [Source]

The very real doom and gloom of climate change is already widely reported, albeit not to the degree that it perhaps should. Future citizens of the world, should society survive in its current form, will ultimately judge how we respond to this threat. I’m not here to write an entire post extolling the virtue of taking personal steps to reduce your own environmental impact while (much more importantly) calling for you to vote for representatives that will rein in large corporations and act against climate change, although you should certainly do those things. No, I’d rather focus on one solitary consequence of climate change and save that larger discussion for a different time.

Today’s blog post is about an interesting, plant breeding-centric revelation that I’ve stumbled across in my internet meanderings and I believe it is of the utmost importance that I share it with you. Speaking of which, you may want to grab a frothy glass of your favorite craft beer before you read the rest of this post. In fact, get an entire six-pack ready.

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Drink. It. In. [Source]

Climate change is coming for our beer. Yes, you read that correctly folks. A recent study published in Nature Plants that was conducted by Xie et al. has concluded that beer is likely to skyrocket in price due to growing conditions becoming inhospitable to barley as a consequence of climate change. Beer prices will likely increase drastically, and that is a direct result of the decreased availability of barley. Using a combination of different models, the researchers found that barley yield losses are going to range from 3% to 17% depending on the severity of the actual conditions we experience (i.e., how much we do to address climate change). Beer consumption will go down in many countries and the price increases are likely to be quite high. For example, Xie et al. predicted price increases of almost 200% in Ireland (better stockpile that Guinness).

 

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Changes in beer consumption and price under increasingly severe drought–heat events. Each column presents the results for the ten most affected countries in the regional aggregation of this study. a–d, Absolute change in the total volume of beer consumed. e–h, Change in beer price per 500 ml. i–l, Change in annual beer consumption per capita. The severity of extreme events increases from top to bottom. The length of the bars for each RCP shows average changes of all modeled extreme events years from 2010 to 2099, which are shown to the left of each bar, and the colors of the bars represent per-capita gross domestic product (see color scale). Whiskers indicate the 25th and 75th percentiles of all changes (n = 17, 77, 80 and 139 extreme events under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5, respectively; see percentage changes with full range for all main beer-consuming countries in Supplementary Figs. 26–28; absolute changes in Supplementary Figs. 30–32). (Adapted from Xie et al, 2018)

 

As you can see, the situation becomes worse when conditions are most intense (four different climate scenarios were tested). These findings are sure to sound quite terrifying to any fellow beer connoisseurs, since the beverage is usually loved for its affordability as well as its taste. If beer is as expensive, or more so, than wine and lower end liquor, its popularity will likely wane.

Unfortunately, there are few alternatives to barley. Most of the breweries that you’re familiar with rely on the crop. However, those of you that are on gluten-free diets may already be aware of one alternative that is near and dear to yours truly: sorghum! Yes, sorghum can be used in the brewing of beer, although beer made from sorghum is not very popular in the U.S. Those that have tasted it will note that the flavor is not comparable to most of the more popular beers with which we’re familiar.  While this is purely subjective, I happen to agree that it simply doesn’t have the necessary ‘bite’ that you expect in a good craft beer (I could never be accused of being a shill for “Big Sorghum” when it comes to my beer preferences). That isn’t to say sorghum beer doesn’t have popularity elsewhere, particularly in many African countries.

 

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Sorghum: The hero that we need, but not the hero that we deserve. Image Credit: N. Ace Pugh (Texas A&M University)

 

Nevertheless, sorghum and sorghum beer will likely need to become more attractive to producers and brewers, respectively, as the possible range for growing barley becomes more and more limited. While the beer it leads to is quite different in taste, sorghum can withstand drought and heat comparatively better. Whether or not the sorghum beer will become more palatable to U.S. consumers in the future is difficult to say. We simply don’t know. No matter how you slice it, a world that is inhospitable to barley is a world inhospitable to beer as most Americans currently know it. If the introduction of this blog post wasn’t enough to concern you, perhaps our impending beer crisis will.